Traditionelle opskrifter

Hvorfor kokke elsker at lave grill diasshow

Hvorfor kokke elsker at lave grill diasshow

Vil Budiaman

Jeffrey Coon, chefkok, Dinosaur Bar-B-Que, New York City

"Jeg elsker at lave grill, fordi du tager stykker kød, der normalt ikke kan håndteres, du arbejder dem, du bruger din viden, du ryger dem lavt og langsomt, du laver et godt produkt ud af, hvad mange mennesker ikke synes er så godt ... Men det er altid en udfordring hver dag. Jeg elsker det, og jeg har gjort det i 20 år nu. Vi [skruer] ikke rundt, og vi tager det alvorligt. "

Han tuller ikke - Coon arbejdede engang 36 timer lige på linjen hos Meatopia.

Fyren, der ikke skruer rundt

Vil Budiaman

Jeffrey Coon, chefkok, Dinosaur Bar-B-Que, New York City

"Jeg elsker at lave grill, fordi du tager kødstykker, der normalt er uoverskuelige, du arbejder dem, du bruger din viden, du ryger dem lavt og langsomt, du laver et godt produkt ud af, hvad mange mennesker ikke synes er så godt ... Men det er altid en udfordring hver dag. Vi [skruer] ikke rundt, og vi tager det alvorligt. "

Han tuller ikke - Coon arbejdede engang 36 timer lige på linjen hos Meatopia.

Bare elsker det

Vil Budiaman

Big Lou Elrose, pitmaster og partner, Wildwood grill, New York City

"Det er sjovt, fordi jeg er en grillmand - jeg er en pensioneret politibetjent i New York, og jeg begyndte at konkurrere med grill, men det var sådan, jeg kom ind på det her.

Sandsynligvis er bryst og svinekød skulder mine to favoritter. Bryst er bare så godt - du ved, hvis du tilbereder brystet ordentligt, 200 til 225 grader, i cirka 12 til 16 timer, kommer det utroligt godt ud, og det samme med svinekødsskulder, med alle de særlige gnidninger og injektioner, du kan få et virkelig godt produkt. "

Fyren kan lide svinekød

Vil Budiaman

Glenn Rolnick, direktør for kulinarisk pperation hos Alicart Restaurant Group, Virgils rigtige grillmad, New York City

"Svinekød. Elsker svinekød - jeg kan godt lide svinekød, jeg kan godt lide lidt fedt i mit kød; jeg kan ikke lide kød, der ikke har noget fedt. Stor bark på huden, så den har en dejlig krydret skorpe på udenfor, så det er det første, du smager, når du bider i, og så smager du på det flotte, fugtige møre kød indeni. Det er den langsomme proces at få det tilberedt i - rigtig, rigtig gode, stærke smag i kødet. "

Klik her for at se, hvordan du sikkert laver en grisesteg i baghaven.

Læg ikke grillen i en æske

Vil Budiaman

Oliver Gift, chefkok, Lowcountry, New York City

"For mange unge kokke synes jeg, at grill er en fantastisk vej ... der er så bredt i denne mad og stil.

Det er ikke så meget "sydligt" [længere] - det er på verdensplan; Jeg har et menupunkt, en svinekødsslider, der er meget asiatisk ... f.eks. Jeg forsøger at tage hele spektret af verden og bringe det tilbage til inspiration - jeg tror ikke, det er virkelig for nogen at låse [grill] ind i et bestemt område. "

Folkets Person

Vil Budiaman

Simon Glenn, kok og "nummer et konspirator", Tchoup Shop BBQ, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, N.Y.

"Det er især godt, når du kommer væk fra køkkenvæggene, og du sidder der, og du er ved grillen, serverer folk lige der og ser folk spise din mad interaktivt."

Kan lide variabler

Vil Budiaman

Jeff Lutonsky, medejer, Mable's Smokehouse & Banquet Hall, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, N.Y.

"Jeg nyder at lave mad med grill, fordi det hele tiden ændrer sig. Det tager fem minutter at lære og en levetid at mestre, grundlæggende. Så der er så mange forskellige variabler, der virkelig kan smide noget ud af at arbejde med billige stykker kød, billige grøntsager .. . så du tager noget, der før blev smidt væk og så bare med en masse kærlighed og opmærksomhed, så forvandler du det til noget, der er virkelig specielt og slags fantastisk, der blæser folk væk. "

Brystmanden

Vil Budiaman

Daniel DeLaney, ejer, BrisketLab, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, NY (åbning 31. oktober 2012)

"Brisket er det sværeste protein at tilberede, men hvis du søm det, virkelig søm det, det er forbløffende-virkelig, virkelig tankegang."

Manden

Jason DeCrow/AP Images for Udi's Gluten Free Foods

Rocco DiSpirito, berømthedskok, tv-programvært og James Beard-prisvindende kogebogsforfatter

"Jeg synes, at det, der er godt ved grill, er, at det altid er lækkert, og det er noget, alle kan gøre. Og det er normalt, når mænd engagerer sig i madlavning, så det er lidt en sjov mulighed for mænd at bidrage til at få familien samlet til middag." Mænd kan faktisk godt lide deres kød.


Grill er en amerikansk tradition - af slaver afrikanere og indianere

B arbecue er en form for kulturel magt og er intenst politisk, med en kultur af regler som ingen anden amerikansk kulinarisk tradition: sauce eller ingen sauce, hvilken slags sauce hakket eller ikke hakket hele dyr eller bare ribben eller skuldre. Og hvis Amerika handler om mennesker, der skaber nye verdener baseret på oprør mod undertrykkelse og slaveri, så er grill den ideelle ret: den blev lavet af slaver afrikanere med inspiration og bidrag fra indianere, der kæmper for at bevare deres uafhængighed.

Den fælles kulturelle fortælling om grill tildeler imidlertid udelukkende oprindelsen til indianere og europæere, at selve etymologien af ​​ordet siges at stamme fra både Carib gennem spansk (barbacoa - at stege over varme kul på en træramme) eller fra vesteuropæiske kilder (grill-en-kø på fransk-"hoved til hale"-hvilket passer fint til nutidige ideer om spild uden spild og indtagelse af slagteaffald). Nogle amerikanske grillmestre har taget til at tilskrive innovationen af ​​grill til deres tyske og tjekkiske forfædre.

Om noget, både i etymologi og kulinarisk teknik, er grill lige så afrikansk som indianer og europæere, selvom slaver afrikanere stort set er blevet slettet fra den moderne historie om amerikansk grill. I bedste fald ses vores forfædre som tankeløse madlavningsmaskiner, der tilberedte kødet under streng hvid overvågning, hvis overhovedet i værste fald var grillen noget, der blev gjort “for” slaverne, som om de blev introduceret til en ny godbid. I virkeligheden formede de kulturen i den nye verdens grilltraditioner, fra ryk i Jamaica til anticuchos i Peru til madlavningstraditioner i de koloniale Pampas. Og ordet grill har også rødder i Vestafrika blandt Hausa'erne, der brugte udtrykket "babbake" til at beskrive et kompleks af ord, der henviser til grillning, ristning, opbygning af en stor bål, singing af hår eller fjer og tilberedning af mad over en lang periode med tid over en ekstravagant brand.

I de tidligste kolonidage tjente Vestindien som frøkolonier for tilstedeværelsen af ​​slaver afrikanere i den nye verden, især fordi indfødte amerikanere inden for 10 år efter europæisk ankomst udholdt masse, folkedrab som følge af indførelsen af ​​almindelige sygdomme i Europa . Med kun et par tilbageværende Carib- og Arawak -indfødte blev afrikanerne hurtigt majoritet på øerne og til sidst den sydøstlige kyst (hvor mange ø -kolonister genbosatte sig i slutningen af ​​det 17. og tidlige 18. århundrede, ofte med deres slaver i slæb) .

På Jamaica knyttede rødbrune oprørere, der modstod slaveri og dannede deres egne bosættelser, bånd med oprørske indfødte øboere i Vestindien og Latinamerika (hvilket i sidste ende førte til den moderne grillform kendt som ryk). Lignende bånd blev etableret i de første områder i USA for at se slaver afrikaneres ankomst, hvilket fandt sted i 1526, efter at spanieren Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon døde i et forsøg på at etablere en koloni i det, vi nu kender som South Carolina. Ayllons politiske efterfølgere opgav området og efterlod de slaver afrikanere og indianerne, der havde guidet dem dertil. Med spanskerne var grise kommet, som blev vildtlevende og den dag i dag angriber sydlige skovområder. Det var i den sammenhæng, at grillen debuterede på det, der nu er amerikansk jord.

Enslavede afrikanere og indianere havde meget tilfælles, kulinært talende: de havde lavet mad og spist på lignende måder. trods et hav mellem deres civilisationer. Det giver kun mening, at når deres madveje, afgrøder, madlavningsmetoder og systemer til bevarelse, jagt, fiskeri og madopbevaring kolliderede, ville der være dybe ligheder og konvergenser mellem teknik, metode og dygtighed. Og vest- og centralafrikanere havde altid haft deres egne versioner af barbacoa og spyt stegning af kød. Mens vi levede i et tropisk klima, var saltning, krydderi og halvrøgning af kød ved slagteri nøglen til at sikre, at vildtet ville komme tilbage til landsbyen med minimal ødelæggelse. Festivaler var præget af saltning, krydderi og stegning af hele dyr eller store kødstykker.

Således i koloniale og antebellum Nordamerika blev slaver til mænd grillens mesterkokke: træsnit, tegnefilm, postkort og portrætter fra perioden dokumenterer den rolle, sorte kokke spillede i udformningen af ​​denne meget amerikanske, og især sydlige hæfteklammer. Arbejde over gruber i jorden dækket af grønt træ - meget som i Vestafrika eller Jamaica - det var slaver af mænd og deres efterkommere, ikke Bubbas af nutidens Barbecue Pitmasters, der fornyede og forfinede regionale grilltraditioner. Om noget blev tyske, tjekkiske, mexicanske og andre traditioner i South Carolina, Missouri og Texas føjet til en base skabt af sorte hænder, der var smedet i slaveriets smeltedigel.

På nogle måder er grill sand mad til uafhængighedsdagen. Da europæiske amerikanere akklimatiserede sig til skikken at opgive redskaber og endda tallerkener for at spise mere som slaver afrikanere og indianere - fra spareribs til majskolber - brugte de deres hænder i et hidtil uset brud med den gamle verdens formaliteter. Det er ikke uden nogen ironi, at slaver, de tidligste grill pitmasters, blev opfordret til at benytte slaveholdere og politikere med fjerde juli grill, der skulle vinde over naboer og vælgere. Da de opnåede deres egen frihed, fejrede de tidligere slaver Juneteenth med ingen ringere end deres foretrukne frihedsmad - grill.

Grill er nu bredt anerkendt som en hæfteklammer i den amerikanske kulinariske kanon - så meget, at mindst tre nationale helligdage (Memorial Day, Independence Day og Labor Day) er forbundet med det. Grill er snøret med stræben efter frihed, men det blev krydret og smagt af de mennesker, der ikke kunne nyde nogen frihed på uafhængighedsdagen i næsten et århundrede.


Grill er en amerikansk tradition - af slaver afrikanere og indianere

B arbecue er en form for kulturel magt og er intenst politisk, med en kultur af regler som ingen anden amerikansk kulinarisk tradition: sauce eller ingen sauce, hvilken slags sauce hakket eller ikke hakket hele dyr eller bare ribben eller skuldre. Og hvis Amerika handler om mennesker, der skaber nye verdener baseret på oprør mod undertrykkelse og slaveri, så er grill den ideelle ret: den blev lavet af slaver afrikanere med inspiration og bidrag fra indianere, der kæmper for at bevare deres uafhængighed.

Den fælles kulturelle fortælling om grill tildeler imidlertid udelukkende oprindelsen til indianere og europæere, at selve etymologien af ​​ordet siges at stamme fra både Carib gennem spansk (barbacoa - at stege over varme kul på en træramme) eller fra vesteuropæiske kilder (grill-en-kø på fransk-"hoved til hale"-hvilket passer fint til nutidige ideer om spild uden spild og indtagelse af slagteaffald). Nogle amerikanske grillmestre har taget til at tilskrive innovationen af ​​grill til deres tyske og tjekkiske forfædre.

Om noget, både i etymologi og kulinarisk teknik, er grill lige så afrikansk som indianer og europæere, selvom slaver afrikanere stort set er blevet slettet fra den moderne historie om amerikansk grill. I bedste fald ses vores forfædre som tankeløse madlavningsmaskiner, der tilberedte kødet under strengt hvidt tilsyn, hvis overhovedet i værste fald var grillen noget, der blev gjort “for” slaverne, som om de blev introduceret til en ny godbid. I virkeligheden formede de kulturen i den nye verdens grilltraditioner, fra ryk i Jamaica til anticuchos i Peru til madlavningstraditioner i de koloniale Pampas. Og ordet grill har også rødder i Vestafrika blandt Hausaerne, der brugte udtrykket "babbake" til at beskrive et kompleks af ord, der henviser til grillning, ristning, opbygning af en stor bål, singing af hår eller fjer og tilberedning af mad over en lang periode med tid over en ekstravagant brand.

I de tidligste kolonidage tjente Vestindien som frøkolonier for tilstedeværelsen af ​​slaver afrikanere i den nye verden, især fordi indfødte amerikanere inden for 10 år efter europæisk ankomst udholdt masse, folkedrab som følge af indførelsen af ​​almindelige sygdomme i Europa . Med kun et par tilbageværende Carib- og Arawak -indfødte blev afrikanerne hurtigt majoritet på øerne og til sidst den sydøstlige kyst (hvor mange ø -kolonister genbosatte sig i slutningen af ​​det 17. og tidlige 18. århundrede, ofte med deres slaver i slæb) .

I Jamaica knyttede rødbrune oprørere, der modstod slaveri og dannede deres egne bosættelser, bånd med oprørske indfødte øboere i Vestindien og Latinamerika (hvilket i sidste ende førte til den moderne grillform kendt som ryk). Lignende bånd blev etableret i de første områder i USA for at se slaver afrikaneres ankomst, hvilket fandt sted i 1526, efter at spanieren Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon døde i et forsøg på at etablere en koloni i det, vi nu kender som South Carolina. Ayllons politiske efterfølgere forlod området og efterlod de slaver afrikanere og indianerne, der havde guidet dem dertil. Med spanskerne var grise kommet, som blev vildtlevende og den dag i dag angriber sydlige skovområder. Det var i den sammenhæng, at grillen debuterede på det, der nu er amerikansk jord.

Enslavede afrikanere og indianere havde meget tilfælles, kulinært talende: de havde lavet mad og spist på lignende måder. trods et hav mellem deres civilisationer. Det giver kun mening, at når deres madveje, afgrøder, madlavningsmetoder og systemer til bevarelse, jagt, fiskeri og madopbevaring kolliderede, ville der være dybe ligheder og konvergenser mellem teknik, metode og dygtighed. Og vest- og centralafrikanere havde altid haft deres egne versioner af barbacoa og spyt stegning af kød. Mens vi levede i et tropisk klima, var saltning, krydderi og halvrøgende kød ved slagteri nøglen til at sikre, at vildtet ville komme tilbage til landsbyen med minimal ødelæggelse. Festivaler var præget af saltning, krydderi og stegning af hele dyr eller store kødstykker.

Således i koloniale og antebellum Nordamerika blev slaver til mænd grillens mesterkokke: træsnit, tegnefilm, postkort og portrætter fra perioden dokumenterer den rolle, sorte kokke spillede i udformningen af ​​denne meget amerikanske, og især sydlige hæfteklammer. Arbejde over gruber i jorden dækket af grønt træ - meget som i Vestafrika eller Jamaica - det var slaver af mænd og deres efterkommere, ikke Bubbas af nutidens Barbecue Pitmasters, der fornyede og forfinede regionale grilltraditioner. Om noget blev tyske, tjekkiske, mexicanske og andre traditioner i South Carolina, Missouri og Texas føjet til en base skabt af sorte hænder, der var smedet i slaveriets smeltedigel.

På nogle måder er grill sand mad til uafhængighedsdagen. Da europæiske amerikanere akklimatiserede sig til skikken at opgive redskaber og endda tallerkener for at spise mere som slaver afrikanere og indianere - fra spareribs til majskolber - brugte de deres hænder i et hidtil uset brud med den gamle verdens formaliteter. Det er ikke uden nogen ironi, at slaver, de tidligste grill pitmasters, blev opfordret til at benytte slaveholdere og politikere med fjerde juli grill, der skulle vinde over naboer og vælgere. Da de opnåede deres egen frihed, fejrede de tidligere slaver Juneteenth med ingen ringere end deres foretrukne frihedsmad - grill.

Grill er nu bredt anerkendt som en hæfteklammer i den amerikanske kulinariske kanon - så meget, at mindst tre nationale helligdage (Memorial Day, Independence Day og Labor Day) er forbundet med det. Grill er snøret med stræben efter frihed, men det blev krydret og smagt af de mennesker, der ikke kunne nyde nogen frihed på uafhængighedsdagen i næsten et århundrede.


Grill er en amerikansk tradition - af slaver afrikanere og indianere

B arbecue er en form for kulturel magt og er intenst politisk, med en kultur af regler som ingen anden amerikansk kulinarisk tradition: sauce eller ingen sauce, hvilken slags sauce hakket eller ikke hakket hele dyr eller bare ribben eller skuldre. Og hvis Amerika handler om mennesker, der skaber nye verdener baseret på oprør mod undertrykkelse og slaveri, så er grill den ideelle ret: den blev lavet af slaver afrikanere med inspiration og bidrag fra indianere, der kæmper for at bevare deres uafhængighed.

Den fælles kulturelle fortælling om grill tildeler imidlertid udelukkende oprindelsen til indianere og europæere, at selve etymologien af ​​ordet siges at stamme fra både Carib gennem spansk (barbacoa - at stege over varme kul på en træramme) eller fra vesteuropæiske kilder (grill-en-kø på fransk-"hoved til hale"-hvilket passer fint til nutidige ideer om spild uden spild og indtagelse af slagteaffald). Nogle amerikanske grillmestre har taget til at tilskrive innovationen af ​​grill til deres tyske og tjekkiske forfædre.

Om noget, både i etymologi og kulinarisk teknik, er grill lige så afrikansk som indianer og europæere, selvom slaver afrikanere stort set er blevet slettet fra den moderne historie om amerikansk grill. I bedste fald ses vores forfædre som tankeløse madlavningsmaskiner, der tilberedte kødet under streng hvid overvågning, hvis overhovedet i værste fald var grillen noget, der blev gjort “for” slaverne, som om de blev introduceret til en ny godbid. I virkeligheden formede de kulturen i den nye verdens grilltraditioner, fra ryk i Jamaica til anticuchos i Peru til madlavningstraditioner i de koloniale Pampas. Og ordet grill har også rødder i Vestafrika blandt Hausaerne, der brugte udtrykket "babbake" til at beskrive et kompleks af ord, der henviser til grillning, ristning, opbygning af en stor bål, singing af hår eller fjer og tilberedning af mad over en lang periode med tid over en ekstravagant brand.

I de tidligste kolonidage tjente Vestindien som frøkolonier for tilstedeværelsen af ​​slaver afrikanere i den nye verden, især fordi indfødte amerikanere inden for 10 år efter europæisk ankomst udholdt masse, folkedrab som følge af indførelsen af ​​almindelige sygdomme i Europa . Med kun et par tilbageværende Carib- og Arawak -indfødte blev afrikanerne hurtigt majoritet på øerne og til sidst den sydøstlige kyst (hvor mange ø -kolonister genbosatte sig i slutningen af ​​det 17. og tidlige 18. århundrede, ofte med deres slaver i slæb) .

På Jamaica knyttede rødbrune oprørere, der modstod slaveri og dannede deres egne bosættelser, bånd med oprørske indfødte øboere i Vestindien og Latinamerika (hvilket i sidste ende førte til den moderne grillform kendt som ryk). Lignende bånd blev etableret i de første områder i USA for at se slaver afrikaneres ankomst, hvilket fandt sted i 1526, efter at spanieren Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon døde i et forsøg på at etablere en koloni i det, vi nu kender som South Carolina. Ayllons politiske efterfølgere opgav området og efterlod de slaver afrikanere og indianerne, der havde guidet dem dertil. Med spanskerne var grise kommet, som blev vildtlevende og den dag i dag angriber sydlige skovområder. Det var i den sammenhæng, at grillen debuterede på det, der nu er amerikansk jord.

Enslavede afrikanere og indianere havde meget tilfælles, kulinært talende: de havde lavet mad og spist på lignende måder. trods et hav mellem deres civilisationer. Det giver kun mening, at når deres madveje, afgrøder, madlavningsmetoder og systemer til bevarelse, jagt, fiskeri og madopbevaring kolliderede, ville der være dybe ligheder og konvergenser mellem teknik, metode og dygtighed. Og vest- og centralafrikanere havde altid haft deres egne versioner af barbacoa og spyt stegning af kød. Mens vi levede i et tropisk klima, var saltning, krydderi og halvrøgning af kød ved slagteri nøglen til at sikre, at vildtet ville komme tilbage til landsbyen med minimal ødelæggelse. Festivaler var præget af saltning, krydderi og stegning af hele dyr eller store kødstykker.

Således i koloniale og antebellum Nordamerika blev slaver til mænd grillens mesterkokke: træsnit, tegnefilm, postkort og portrætter fra perioden dokumenterer den rolle, sorte kokke spillede i udformningen af ​​denne meget amerikanske, og især sydlige hæfteklammer. Arbejde over gruber i jorden dækket af grønt træ - meget som i Vestafrika eller Jamaica - det var slaver af mænd og deres efterkommere, ikke Bubbas af nutidens grillpitmasters, der fornyede og forfinede regionale grilltraditioner. Om noget blev tyske, tjekkiske, mexicanske og andre traditioner i South Carolina, Missouri og Texas føjet til en base skabt af sorte hænder, der var smedet i slaveriets smeltedigel.

På nogle måder er grill sand mad til uafhængighedsdagen. Da europæiske amerikanere akklimatiserede sig til skikken at opgive redskaber og endda tallerkener for at spise mere som slaver afrikanere og indianere - fra spareribs til majskolber - brugte de deres hænder i et hidtil uset brud med den gamle verdens formaliteter. Det er ikke uden nogen ironi, at slaver, de tidligste grill pitmasters, blev opfordret til at benytte slaveholdere og politikere med fjerde juli grill, der skulle vinde over naboer og vælgere. Da de fik deres egen frihed, fejrede de tidligere slaver Juneteenth med ingen ringere end deres foretrukne frihedsmad - grill.

Grill er nu bredt anerkendt som en hæfteklammer i den amerikanske kulinariske kanon - så meget, at mindst tre nationale helligdage (Memorial Day, Independence Day og Labor Day) er forbundet med det. Grill er snøret med stræben efter frihed, men det blev krydret og smagt af de mennesker, der ikke kunne nyde nogen frihed på uafhængighedsdagen i næsten et århundrede.


Grill er en amerikansk tradition - af slaver afrikanere og indianere

B arbecue er en form for kulturel magt og er intenst politisk, med en kultur af regler som ingen anden amerikansk kulinarisk tradition: sauce eller ingen sauce, hvilken slags sauce hakket eller ikke hakket hele dyr eller bare ribben eller skuldre. Og hvis Amerika handler om mennesker, der skaber nye verdener baseret på oprør mod undertrykkelse og slaveri, så er grill den ideelle ret: den blev lavet af slaver afrikanere med inspiration og bidrag fra indianere, der kæmper for at bevare deres uafhængighed.

Den fælles kulturelle fortælling om grill tildeler imidlertid udelukkende oprindelsen til indianere og europæere, at selve etymologien af ​​ordet siges at stamme fra både Carib gennem spansk (barbacoa - at stege over varme kul på en træramme) eller fra vesteuropæiske kilder (grill-en-kø på fransk-"hoved til hale"-hvilket passer fint til nutidige ideer om spild uden spild og indtagelse af slagteaffald). Nogle amerikanske grillmestre har taget til at tilskrive innovationen af ​​grill til deres tyske og tjekkiske forfædre.

Om noget, både i etymologi og kulinarisk teknik, er grill lige så afrikansk som indianer og europæere, selvom slaver afrikanere stort set er blevet slettet fra den moderne historie om amerikansk grill. I bedste fald ses vores forfædre som tankeløse madlavningsmaskiner, der tilberedte kødet under strengt hvidt tilsyn, hvis overhovedet i værste fald var grillen noget, der blev gjort “for” slaverne, som om de blev introduceret til en ny godbid. I virkeligheden formede de kulturen i den nye verdens grilltraditioner, fra ryk i Jamaica til anticuchos i Peru til madlavningstraditioner i de koloniale Pampas. Og ordet grill har også rødder i Vestafrika blandt Hausa'erne, der brugte udtrykket "babbake" til at beskrive et kompleks af ord, der henviser til grillning, ristning, opbygning af en stor bål, singing af hår eller fjer og tilberedning af mad over en lang periode med tid over en ekstravagant brand.

I de tidligste kolonidage tjente Vestindien som frøkolonier for tilstedeværelsen af ​​slaver afrikanere i den nye verden, især fordi indfødte amerikanere inden for 10 år efter europæisk ankomst udholdt masse, folkedrab som følge af indførelsen af ​​almindelige sygdomme i Europa . Med kun et par tilbageværende Carib- og Arawak -indfødte blev afrikanerne hurtigt majoritet på øerne og til sidst den sydøstlige kyst (hvor mange ø -kolonister genbosatte sig i slutningen af ​​det 17. og tidlige 18. århundrede, ofte med deres slaver i slæb) .

I Jamaica knyttede rødbrune oprørere, der modstod slaveri og dannede deres egne bosættelser, bånd med oprørske indfødte øboere i Vestindien og Latinamerika (hvilket i sidste ende førte til den moderne grillform kendt som ryk). Lignende bånd blev etableret i de første områder i USA for at se ankomsten af ​​slaver afrikanere, som fandt sted i 1526, efter at spanieren Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon døde i et forsøg på at etablere en koloni i det, vi nu kender som South Carolina. Ayllons politiske efterfølgere forlod området og efterlod de slaver afrikanere og indianerne, der havde guidet dem dertil. Med spanskerne var grise kommet, som blev vildtlevende og den dag i dag angriber sydlige skovområder. Det var i den sammenhæng, at grillen debuterede på det, der nu er amerikansk jord.

Enslavede afrikanere og indianere havde meget tilfælles, kulinært talende: de havde lavet mad og spist på lignende måder. trods et hav mellem deres civilisationer. Det giver kun mening, at når deres madveje, afgrøder, madlavningsmetoder og systemer til bevarelse, jagt, fiskeri og madopbevaring kolliderede, ville der være dybe ligheder og konvergenser mellem teknik, metode og dygtighed. Og vest- og centralafrikanere havde altid haft deres egne versioner af barbacoa og spyt stegning af kød. Mens vi levede i et tropisk klima, var saltning, krydderi og halvrøgende kød ved slagteri nøglen til at sikre, at vildtet ville komme tilbage til landsbyen med minimal ødelæggelse. Festivaler var præget af saltning, krydderi og stegning af hele dyr eller store kødstykker.

Således i koloniale og antebellum Nordamerika blev slaver til mænd grillens mesterkokke: træsnit, tegnefilm, postkort og portrætter fra perioden dokumenterer den rolle, sorte kokke spillede i udformningen af ​​denne meget amerikanske, og især sydlige hæfteklammer. Arbejde over gruber i jorden dækket af grønt træ - meget som i Vestafrika eller Jamaica - det var slaver af mænd og deres efterkommere, ikke Bubbas af nutidens grillpitmasters, der fornyede og forfinede regionale grilltraditioner. Om noget blev tyske, tjekkiske, mexicanske og andre traditioner i South Carolina, Missouri og Texas føjet til en base skabt af sorte hænder, der var smedet i slaveriets smeltedigel.

På nogle måder er grill sand mad til uafhængighedsdagen. Da europæiske amerikanere akklimatiserede sig til skikken at forlade redskaber og endda tallerkener for at spise mere som slaver afrikanere og indianere - fra spareribs til majskolber - brugte de deres hænder i et hidtil uset brud med den gamle verdens formaliteter. Det er ikke uden nogen ironi, at slaver, de tidligste grill pitmasters, blev opfordret til at benytte slaveholdere og politikere med fjerde juli grill, der skulle vinde over naboer og vælgere. Da de opnåede deres egen frihed, fejrede de tidligere slaver Juneteenth med ingen ringere end deres foretrukne frihedsmad - grill.

Grill er nu bredt anerkendt som en hæfteklammer i den amerikanske kulinariske kanon - så meget, at mindst tre nationale helligdage (Memorial Day, Independence Day og Labor Day) er forbundet med det. Grill er snøret med stræben efter frihed, men det blev krydret og smagt af de mennesker, der ikke kunne nyde nogen frihed på uafhængighedsdagen i næsten et århundrede.


Grill er en amerikansk tradition - af slaver afrikanere og indianere

B arbecue er en form for kulturel magt og er intenst politisk, med en kultur af regler som ingen anden amerikansk kulinarisk tradition: sauce eller ingen sauce, hvilken slags sauce hakket eller ikke hakket hele dyr eller bare ribben eller skuldre. Og hvis Amerika handler om mennesker, der skaber nye verdener baseret på oprør mod undertrykkelse og slaveri, så er grill den ideelle ret: den blev lavet af slaver afrikanere med inspiration og bidrag fra indianere, der kæmper for at bevare deres uafhængighed.

Den fælles kulturelle fortælling om grill tildeler imidlertid udelukkende oprindelsen til indianere og europæere, at selve etymologien af ​​ordet siges at stamme fra både Carib gennem spansk (barbacoa - at stege over varme kul på en træramme) eller fra vesteuropæiske kilder (grill-en-kø på fransk-"hoved til hale"-hvilket passer fint til nutidige ideer om spild uden spild og indtagelse af slagteaffald). Nogle amerikanske grillmestre har taget til at tilskrive innovationen af ​​grill til deres tyske og tjekkiske forfædre.

Om noget, både i etymologi og kulinarisk teknik, er grill lige så afrikansk som indianer og europæere, selvom slaver afrikanere stort set er blevet slettet fra den moderne historie om amerikansk grill. I bedste fald ses vores forfædre som tankeløse madlavningsmaskiner, der tilberedte kødet under streng hvid overvågning, hvis overhovedet i værste fald var grillen noget, der blev gjort “for” slaverne, som om de blev introduceret til en ny godbid. I virkeligheden formede de kulturen i den nye verdens grilltraditioner, fra ryk i Jamaica til anticuchos i Peru til madlavningstraditioner i de koloniale Pampas. Og ordet grill har også rødder i Vestafrika blandt Hausaerne, der brugte udtrykket "babbake" til at beskrive et kompleks af ord, der henviser til grillning, ristning, opbygning af en stor bål, singing af hår eller fjer og tilberedning af mad over en lang periode med tid over en ekstravagant brand.

I de tidligste kolonidage tjente Vestindien som frøkolonier for tilstedeværelsen af ​​slaver afrikanere i den nye verden, især fordi indfødte amerikanere inden for 10 år efter europæisk ankomst udholdt masse, folkedrab som følge af indførelsen af ​​sygdomme, der er almindelige i Europa . Med kun et par tilbageværende Carib- og Arawak -indfødte blev afrikanerne hurtigt majoritet på øerne og til sidst den sydøstlige kyst (hvor mange ø -kolonister genbosatte sig i slutningen af ​​det 17. og tidlige 18. århundrede, ofte med deres slaver i slæb) .

I Jamaica knyttede rødbrune oprørere, der modstod slaveri og dannede deres egne bosættelser, bånd med oprørske indfødte øboere i Vestindien og Latinamerika (hvilket i sidste ende førte til den moderne grillform kendt som ryk). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Barbecue is an American tradition – of enslaved Africans and Native Americans

B arbecue is a form of cultural power and is intensely political, with a culture of rules like no other American culinary tradition: sauce or no sauce which kind of sauce chopped or not chopped whole animal or just ribs or shoulders. And, if America is about people creating new worlds based on rebellion against oppression and slavery, then barbecue is the ideal dish: it was made by enslaved Africans with inspiration and contributions from Native Americans struggling to maintain their independence.

The common cultural narrative of barbecue, however, exclusively assigns its origins to Native Americans and Europeans the very etymology of the word is said to derive from both Carib through Spanish (barbacoa – to roast over hot coals on a wooden framework) or from western European sources (barbe-a-queue in French – “head to tail” – which fits nicely with contemporary ideas of no-waste eating and consuming offal). Some American barbecue masters have taken to attributing the innovation of barbecue to their German and Czech ancestors.

If anything, both in etymology and culinary technique, barbecue is as African as it is Native American and European, though enslaved Africans have largely been erased from the modern story of American barbecue. At best, our ancestors are seen as mindless cooking machines who prepared the meat under strict white supervision, if at all at worst, barbecue was something done “for” the enslaved, as if they were being introduced to a novel treat. In reality, they shaped the culture of New World barbecuing traditions, from jerking in Jamaica to anticuchos in Peru to cooking traditions in the colonial Pampas. And the word barbecue also has roots in West Africa among the Hausa, who used the term “babbake” to describe a complex of words referring to grilling, toasting, building a large fire, singeing hair or feathers and cooking food over a long period of time over an extravagant fire.

In the earliest colonial days, the West Indies served as a seed colonies for the presence of enslaved Africans in the New World especially because, within 10 years of European arrival, indigenous Americans endured mass, genocidal losses due to the introduction of diseases common in Europe. With only a few remaining Carib and Arawak indigenes, Africans quickly became the majority on the islands and, eventually, the Southeastern coast (where many island colonists resettled in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries, often with their enslaved people in tow).

In Jamaica, maroon rebels who resisted slavery and formed their own settlements forged ties with rebellious indigenous islanders in the West Indies and Latin America (leading, eventually, to the modern form of barbecue known as jerking). Similar ties were established in the first areas of the United States to see the arrival of enslaved Africans, which occurred in 1526, after Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon died in an effort to establish a colony in what we know now as South Carolina. Ayllon’s political successors abandoned the area, leaving behind the enslaved Africans and the Native Americans who had guided them there. With the Spanish had come pigs, which became feral and to this day infest Southern woodlands. It was in that context that barbecue made its debut on what is now American soil.

Enslaved Africans and Native Americans had a lot in common, culinarily-speaking: they had been cooking and eating in similar ways. despite an ocean between their civilizations. It only makes sense that, when their foodways, crops, cooking methods and systems of preservation, hunting, fishing and food storage collided, that there would be deep similarities and convergences of technique, method and skill. And West and Central Africans had always had their own versions of the barbacoa and spit roasting of meat. While living in a tropical climate, salting, spicing and half-smoking meat upon butchering was key to ensuring game would make it back to the village with minimal spoilage. Festivals were marked by the salting, spicing and roasting of whole animals or large cuts of meat.

Thus, in colonial and antebellum North America, enslaved men became barbecue’s master chefs: woodcuts, cartoons, postcards and portraits from the period document the role that black chefs played in shaping this very American, and especially Southern staple. Working over pits in the ground covered in green wood – much as in West Africa or Jamaica – it was enslaved men and their descendants, not the Bubbas of today’s Barbecue Pitmasters, that innovated and refined regional barbecue traditions. If anything, German, Czech, Mexican and other traditions in South Carolina, Missouri and Texas were added to a base created by black hands forged in the crucible of slavery.

In some ways barbecue is true Independence Day food. As European Americans acclimated themselves to the custom of forsaking utensils and even plates to eat more like enslaved Africans and Native Americans – from spareribs to corn on the cob – they used their hands in an unprecedented break with Old World formalities. It is not without some irony that enslaved people, the earliest barbecue pitmasters, were called upon to avail slaveholders and politicians with Fourth of July barbecues meant to win over neighbors and constituents. When they obtained their own freedom, the formerly enslaved celebrated Juneteenth with none other than their favorite freedom food – barbecue.

Barbecue is now widely recognized as a staple of the American culinary canon – so much so that at least three national holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day and Labor Day) are associated with it. Barbecue is laced with the aspiration of freedom, but it was seasoned and flavored by the people who could not enjoy any freedom on Independence Day for almost a century.


Se videoen: Hvorfor bør du prøve vektløfting? (Oktober 2021).